10 Most Common Gynaecological Problems Faced by Women in India

By August 29, 2022 December 14th, 2022 No Comments
Common Gynecological Problems

Vaginal infections affect over 21 million women worldwide at some point in their lives. Women may also have a myriad of typical gynecological problems. But due to the lack of sufficient knowledge, these problems could go unnoticed. Here is a list of the 10 most common gynecological problems and everything a woman should know about them.

This would make it easier for you or a loved one to recognise the signs and symptoms of common gynecological problems and contact the closest gynaecologist for treatment as soon as possible.

List of The Ten Common Gynecological Problems

1. PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome)

One of the main reasons women struggle with infertility is PCOS. Over 10 million women worldwide experience PCOS. The primary hormonal cause of this illness is an increase in male hormone levels in female bodies, which causes several metabolic changes. An ultrasound of the ovaries of a woman with PCOS reveals that the ovaries contain several little cysts.

Less than eight cycles per year, or no periods at all, are common in women with PCOS. In addition to the gynecological signs and symptoms such as baldness and facial and body hair growth, polycystic ovarian syndrome may also result in long-term health issues, including diabetes and heart disease.

Common causes of PCOS:

  1. Genetics
  2. Obesity
  3. Poor lifestyle
  4. Lack of activity

Signs and symptoms of PCOS:

  1. Irregular periods
  2. Hair growth on chin, upperlips, and face
  3. Hair loss
  4. Acne
  5. Weight gain
  6. Dark, velvety patches on underarms and other regions of the skin
  7. Mood swings and anxiety
  8. Heavy bleeding

How does the doctor diagnose PCOS?

In order to diagnose PCOS, a gynaecologist often does lab tests like ultrasounds and confirms your body weight, hair development, and menstruation history. They could also suggest testing for diabetes, the lining of the endometrium, etc. to identify the root cause of the problem.


  1. Weight reduction
  2. Exercising and yoga
  3. Healthy and balanced diet
  4. Gynecologist-guided medications
  5. Lifestyle changes
  6. Stress management

2. Vaginitis

Millions of women are affected by this complicated gynecological problem of vaginitis. Any vaginal illness marked by itchiness, burning, and discomfort in and around the vagina is referred to as a vaginitis. Women who regularly use birth control pills, steroids, antibiotics, intrauterine devices, spermicides, and hygiene products like bubble bath, scented vagial deodorants are more likely to develop vaginitis. Additionally, women with uncontrolled diabetes are also at a risk to develop vaginitis.

The common causes of vaginitis are:

  1. Bacterial infection
  2. Yeast infection
  3. Fungal infection (mainly candida)
  4. Sexually transmitted infection (STI)
  5. Reduced estrogen levels after menopause or removal of the ovaries
  6. Allergic reaction to vaginal sprays, forgotten tampons, douches, scented detergents and spermicides.

Signs and symptoms of vaginitis:

  1. Change in color, odor or amount of vaginal discharge
  2. Vaginal itching or irritation
  3. Painful sex and urination
  4. Light vaginal bleeding or spotting

Visit your nearest gynecologist for accurate diagnosis and treatment options to get rid of the signs and symptoms of this problem.

Pro-tips to prevent vaginitis:

  1. Avoid using harsh soaps and scents
  2. Wear cotton underclothes
  3. Wear loose-fitting undergarments
  4. Wipe from front to back after using the toilet to avoid spreading the fecal bacteria to your vagina
  5. Prefer protected and safe sex

3. Abnormal vaginal discharge

Vaginal discharge is often completely normal. Depending on where you are in your menstrual cycle, the quantity, smell, and color (which may range from clear to milky white) can change. For instance, while you are ovulating, nursing, or sexually aroused, the discharge might increase. When you’re pregnant or have neglected your personal hygiene, it could smell different. However, if there is a change in the discharge’s color, smell, or consistency, it may indicate a gynecological problem.

Signs and symptoms of abnormal vaginal discharge:

Here’s what your abnormal discharge might indicate:

  1. A bloody/brownish discharge with symptoms such as pelvic pain and vaginal bleeding indicates an irregular menstrual cycle or, rarely cervical cancer and endometriosis.
  2. A pink discharge, mostly after childbirth simply indicates the normal shedding of the uterine lining.
  3. A cloudy or yellow to greenish discharge with a bad odor, pelvic pain, and itching and pain while urinating indicates a sexually transmitted infection.
  4. A thick white discharge with pain and itching around the vagina and painful sex often indicates a yeast infection


Do not be ashamed if you encounter abnormal vaginal discharge (AVSD), since it may just be a sign of another underlying disease. The good news is that by seeing your gynaecologist and following the recommended treatment measures, you can get rid of AVSD regardless of its underlying cause.

4. Endometriosis

When additional cells or scar tissues begin to accumulate on the ovaries or other areas of the pelvic region, endometriosis, a painful gynecological condition in women, develops. Endometriosis often affects women who are underweight, have a family history of the condition, have severe menstrual bleeding, or have cycles that continue longer than five days.

Signs and symptoms of endometriosis:

  1. Pelvic discomfort and pain
  2. Periods that are painful, heavy, or irregular
  3. Pain before, during, or after sex
  4. Constipation
  5. Abdominal bloating
  6. Leg and back ache
  7. Bloating or diarrhoea
  8. Fatigue
  9. Fertility problems
  10. Discomfort (pain or irritation) when urinating


Medications, surgery, and regular exercise as per the gynec’s suggestion can help you get rid of this condition.

5. Dysmannorhia or painful periods

Dysmenorrhea, a gynecological problem characterized by period discomfort, is the medical term for the cramping and pain that accompany menstruation. 2-29 percent of women of childbearing age endure significant pain, and 16-91 percent of them develop severe pain.

Signs and symptoms of dysmannorrhia

Period pain may vary from one person to another. It can be

  1. A cramping sensation or a burning pain in the lower abdomen
  2. A pain radiating to the hips, back, and legs
  3. A pain that feels like trapped gas.

This pain can be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, bloating, diarrhoea, and sometimes, constipation.


A gynecologist might suggest a painkiller to relieve the pain. Using a hot water bag, resting, stress reduction, etc. can also help cope with this gynecological issue.

6. Fibroids

Up to 80% of women before the age of 50 have fibroids. In its early stages, a uterine fibroid is often benign and asymptomatic. Many females don’t even know they have fibroids. It may be simple to overlook early indicators of the fibroid. However, uterine fibroids may produce symptoms that vary from being just bothersome to seriously impairing quality of life if they get big enough. The size, location in the uterus and kind of the fibroid, often impact the type and intensity of the gynecological signs and symptoms.

Signs and symptoms of fibroids:

  1. Menstrual period lasting for more than 5 days
  2. Pelvic, legs and back pain
  3. Constipation
  4. Frequent urination


The majority of fibroids are asymptomatic and do not need to be treated. In actuality, they often become smaller or vanish after menopause. However, a number of medical procedures may be helpful if fibroids are causing bothersome symptoms. Depending on the symptoms, a gynecologist may advise a suitable course of therapy.

7. Menopause

Menopause, a common gynecological problem that every woman goes through, typically begins around the age of 51. However, it is possible for it to occur before you reach the age of 40. It is known as premature menopause. Your genes have a large role in determining the time when menopause begins. Your body produces substantially fewer female hormones after menopause. This may even have an
impact on your health.

Signs and symptoms of menopause:

  1. Painful sex
  2. Mood swings
  3. Pelvic pain
  4. Dry and sore vagina
  5. Low sex drive
  6. Hot flashes
  7. Abnormal sleep
  8. Irregular periods

Treatment of the symptoms:

  1. Lifestyle changes
  2. Stress management through relaxation techniques such as breath works, yoga, meditation, etc.
  3. Avoiding alcohol, spicy foods, and caffeine can help to reduce hot flashes
  4. Regular exercise
  5. Weight management

8. Dyspareunia or pain/bleeding during sex

Dyspareunia is a condition that causes frequent pain in the pelvic/ abdominal region before, during, or after sex. The intensity of the pain can vary. Many women also experience bleeding during sex. Although bleeding while having sex for the first time is normal, if it occurs frequently after that, it’s a sign of some underlying conditions. This could occur due to:

  • An infection that could be due to some sexually transmitted infections, bacterial, yeast as well as fungal infectionsan infection that may be caused by certain sexually transmitted diseases, bacteria, yeast, or fungi.
  • Dryness and soreness of the vagina (often brought on by menopause)
  • tears in the vagina brought on by sex-related friction or dryness, or injury from childbirth
  • Non-cancerous growths in the cervix or womb lining

Signs and symptoms of dyspareunia:

  1. Recurrent and significant blood loss
  2. Cold and clammy vaginal skin
  3. Bleeding during pregnancy
  4. Losing consciousness
  5. Faster heart rate


A gynecologist can go to the root cause and prescribe the necessary medications. Hence, seek medical help if you experience any of the above-mentioned symptoms. Go for emergency medical help if you are experiencing heavy vaginal bleeding that doesn’t stop.

9. Genital herpes

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted infection caused by herpes virus. One in five women with the age between 14 and 49 years suffer from genital herpes. Skin-to-skin contact with a herpes blister or ulcer is the typical way that genital herpes is transmitted. Even if they don’t have or aren’t aware of a sore, a person with genital herpes may spread the infection to others.

Unprotected oral, anal, or sexual intercourse with a person who has a herpes outbreak may transmit genital herpes. When you have sex with someone who has an active outbreak of open, oozing sores, there are high chances of you getting genital herpes.

If you get genital herpes before or during pregnancy, there are high chances that you will spread herpes to your baby during birth.

The symptoms of this gynecological condition might not be evident always, but if you have an outbreak, you might experience painful water-filled blisters that might even take a couple of weeks to heal.

Signs and symptoms:

  1. Burning and itching sensation in the infection region of the skin
  2. Fever and chills
  3. Abnormal vaginal discharge
  4. Heavy abdomen
  5. Pain in the infected area
  6. Body ache
  7. Fatigue and headaches


Although there is no known treatment for genital herpes, there are antiviral drugs that help hasten the healing process and lessen the discomfort.

Note: Take preventative measures against spreading genital herpes once you come to know that you are suffering from this condition.

10. Urinary incontinence

Urinary incontinence—the loss of bladder control—is a common gynecological problem, especially in women during and after pregnancy. Often, this problem also arises when the women neglect their urinary tract infections and leave them untreated for a longer period of time.

The intensity might vary from sometimes dribbling pee when you cough or sneeze to having a sudden, intense desire to urinate that prevents you from reaching a restroom in time.

Urinary incontinence isn’t a natural part of becoming older, despite the fact that it happens more often as individuals age.


Do not hesitate to see your doctor if urine incontinence interferes with your everyday activities. The majority of individuals may address their urinary incontinence symptoms with easy food and lifestyle adjustments or medical attention. Yoga, kegel exercises, and pelvic floor exercises may all be used to treat
this issue.

Note: Incontinence symptoms for some women disappear in the days or weeks after the birth of their child. Others may have a continuation or worsening of the leak.

Final words

Thus, the above-mentioned ten common gynecological conditions that women come across need active identification and immediate treatment. Apart from these, prevention of some of the issues such as sexually transmitted infections or vaginitis should be practiced regularly with safer sex and less usage of products such as vaginal deodorants.

Do not neglect any of the symptoms that indicate a gynecological issue. You can always visit your nearest gynecologist and get the check-up done on time. Never be late. Take a step ahead to prevent, treat, and manage women’s health issues!

Dr. Sudheer Rai
Dr. Sudheer Rai

Chief Operating Officer at Grant Medical Foundation, Ruby Hall Clinic, Pune

Leave a Reply