Monsoon Diseases

Combatting Dengue Fever: A Comprehensive Monsoon Guide

By July 19, 2023 July 20th, 2023 No Comments
Dengue Fever

Dengue fever affects almost 390 million people globally and out of that hardly 96 million are severe enough for clinical intervention. However, why are we still facing dengue when science has already advanced rapidly? 

Because prevention is better than cure, and we are yet to get better at preventing dengue infection. 

So this blog will give you an overall understanding of how dengue spreads, why monsoons are the peak time for its breeding, what we can do to prevent that, and last but not the least how reputed healthcare institutions such as Ruby Hall Clinic are actively involved in preventing and treating dengue fever.

Understanding Dengue From Its Core

Dengue fever is recognised by its flu-like symptoms such as high fever, severe headache, joint and muscle pain, rash, and mild bleeding from the nose or gums. While the majority of dengue cases are mild, some can progress to severe forms, such as Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) or Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) (DSS).

Dengue virus is divided into four serotypes: DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4. Although each serotype has distinct genetic characteristics, they all cause similar symptoms and can result in severe dengue.

All four dengue virus serotypes are spread across endemic areas, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), and individuals can be infected with any of these serotypes.

Although infection with one serotype provides lifelong immunity to that serotype, it only provides temporary cross-protection against the other serotypes.

As a result of a concept known as antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), further infections with different serotypes can increase the risk of severe dengue. When non-neutralizing antibodies from a previous infection bind to a different dengue serotype during further infections, viral replication is increased, potentially leading to more severe outcomes.

Why Mosquitoes Spread Dengue?

Mosquitoes, specifically Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, play an important role in dengue fever transmission. When these mosquitos bite an infected person, they become infected with the dengue virus. The virus then replicates within the mosquito’s body before reaching the salivary glands. When an infected mosquito bites a healthy person, the virus is transmitted through its saliva, resulting in a new infection.

Due to their dietary habits, environmental preferences, and ability to thrive in urban environments, mosquitoes are considered the primary vectors for dengue transmission. These Aedes mosquitos are most active during the day, with peak activity in the early morning and late afternoon. They prefer to bite humans and usually live and breed in close distance to humans, making them effective virus carriers in communities.

Lifecycle of the Aedes Mosquito

The Aedes mosquito undergoes a typical four-stage lifecycle: egg, larva, pupa, and adult.

  1. Eggs ~ Female Aedes mosquitos lay their eggs in water-filled containers or artificial water-holding structures like flower pots, discarded tyres, or water storage containers. These eggs can survive in dry conditions for several months until they come into contact with water.
  2. Larva ~ When the eggs are exposed to water, they hatch into larvae, which are commonly referred to as wrigglers. Larvae are aquatic creatures that need stagnant or standing water to survive. They grow into the next stage by feeding on microorganisms in the water.
  3. Pupa ~ The larva develops into a pupa, which is also known as a tumbler. The pupal stage is a non-feeding stage during which the mosquito develops and metamorphoses.
  4. Adult ~ The adult mosquito emerges from the water after completing the pupal stage. Female mosquitos need blood to develop and lay eggs. Male mosquitoes feed primarily on plant nectar and seek out human hosts and other warm-blooded animals for a blood meal.

Understanding the role of mosquitoes in the transmission of dengue is crucial for effective prevention and control strategies. The Aedes mosquito species, particularly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, play a significant role in dengue transmission due to their specific behaviors and preferences.

So dengue not only continues to affect the human population individually but in groups making it a highly transferable viral fever. All by a bite!

Moreover, the monsoon is the prime breeding period for dengue fever. But why?

Are Monsoons Favoring Dengue?

Though the arrival of the monsoons  brings relief from the heat and dryness, but it also increases the risk of dengue fever. Monsoons and dengue fever are inextricably linked due to a variety of factors.

The monsoon season can exacerbate the spread of dengue due to several factors:

  • Breeding Grounds: Aedes mosquitos need stagnant water to reproduce. Heavy rain during the monsoon season causes water to accumulate in a various of outdoor and indoor containers, including discarded tyres, flower pots, water storage containers, and blocked drains. These become ideal mosquito breeding grounds, allowing them to multiply quickly.
  • Increased Mosquito Population: During the monsoon season, the availability of numerous breeding sites and favourable environmental conditions can lead to a significant increase in the mosquito population. Since more infected mosquitos increase the likelihood of human-mosquito interactions, the potential for dengue transmission significantly increases.
  • Water Storage Practices: People frequently store water for domestic use during the monsoons due to irregular water supply or concerns about water quality. Inadequate storage practises, such as uncovered containers or improper sealing, provide additional breeding sites for mosquitos, aiding in the spread of dengue.
  • Human Behavior: Monsoons can cause changes in human behaviour, such as spending more time indoors or in areas where mosquito protection is inadequate. This increases the likelihood of being bitten by an infected mosquito and contracting dengue fever.

These factors combine together resulting in an increase in dengue cases during the monsoon season, emphasizing the importance of taking proactive steps to prevent mosquito breeding and protect individuals from dengue transmission.

What Can We Do To Prevent The Spread of Dengue?

Dengue prevention is a critical step in reducing the burden of this mosquito-borne viral disease. While no specific treatment or vaccine is available, individuals and communities can take effective steps to reduce the risk of dengue transmission. We can help control the spread of dengue and protect public health by implementing comprehensive prevention strategies.

Eliminate Mosquito Breeding Sites

  • Get rid of any standing water. Flower pots, buckets, and discarded tyres are examples of empty and clean water-collecting containers.
  • Water storage containers should be covered. To prevent mosquitoes from laying eggs, keep water tanks and containers tightly sealed.
  • Keep your surroundings clean. Clean and maintain areas prone to water accumulation, such as gutters and drains, on a regular basis.

Practice Personal Protection Measures

  • Use insect repellents.
  • On exposed skin, use insect repellents containing DEET, picaridin, or lemon eucalyptus oil.
  • Put on protective clothing. When going outside, wear long sleeves, pants, and socks to minimise exposed skin.
  • Make use of bed nets. Sleep under insecticide-treated bed nets, especially during the day when Aedes mosquitos are active.

Promote Community Engagement

  • Increase awareness. Educate communities on dengue symptoms, prevention methods, and the importance of seeking medical attention as soon as possible.
  • Encourage community participation. Encourage residents to take an active role in mosquito control activities such as cleaning up their surroundings and reporting potential breeding sites.
  • Clean-up campaigns should be organised. Organize community-led efforts to eliminate stagnant water and potential mosquito breeding grounds.

Implement Integrated Vector Management (IVM)

  • Reduce the number of sources. Reduce mosquito breeding sites through targeted efforts such as removing stagnant water-filled containers and improving waste management practises.
  • To kill mosquito larvae, apply larvicides to standing water sources that cannot be eliminated.
  • In areas where dengue transmission is high, use insecticides to control adult mosquitos.

Watch Out and Report

  • Increase disease surveillance. Implement strong systems for tracking dengue cases and identifying high-risk areas for targeted interventions.
  • Improve your reporting and response time. Report suspected cases to local health authorities as soon as possible, allowing for early diagnosis, treatment, and vector control measures.

Why Is Controlling The Spread Of Dengue Fever Becoming Difficult?

Dengue fever is, to some extent, preventable through effective mosquito control measures and community participation in preventive behaviors. Despite prevention efforts, a significant number of dengue cases are reported each year. Several factors contribute to the ongoing spread of dengue and the high number of cases

Complex Transmission Dynamics

Dengue is spread by Aedes mosquitos, specifically Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. These mosquitos have adapted to urban environments, making effective population control difficult. Aedes mosquitoes have unusual breeding habits, can breed in small amounts of stagnant water, and are active during the day, making it difficult to pinpoint their breeding locations.

Global Spread

Dengue fever is endemic in many parts of the world, most notably in tropical and subtropical regions. The globalisation of travel and trade has aided the virus’s spread to new areas. Infected people can unknowingly spread the virus to new areas, resulting in local transmission and an increase in cases.

Lack of Herd Immunity

The dengue virus has four different serotypes that cause the disease (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4). Individuals can become infected with different serotypes over time in areas with multiple circulating serotypes. While infection with one serotype confers lifetime immunity against that serotype, it only confers temporary cross-protection against the others. This lack of long-term immunity to all serotypes contributes to the disease’s ongoing transmission. 

Inadequate Mosquito Control

The effectiveness of mosquito control efforts varies by region and community. Inadequate resources, a lack of sustained efforts, and insufficient implementation of preventive measures such as eliminating breeding sites and using insecticides can result in persistent mosquito populations and continued dengue transmission.

Environmental Factors

Climate change, urbanisation, and unplanned growth can all contribute to mosquito breeding conditions. Climate change may have an impact on mosquito populations and distribution, while rapid urbanisation may increase the availability of breeding sites in densely populated areas.

Dengue prevention requires a comprehensive and integrated approach that includes long-term mosquito control measures, community engagement, public health interventions, and vaccine and treatment research. To reduce the global burden of this disease, governments, healthcare systems, communities, and international organisations must continue to collaborate to overcome dengue prevention challenges.

How To Recognize Dengue Symptoms And Seek Help

Early detection and timely medical intervention are critical for effective dengue fever management. Understanding the symptoms and knowing when and where to seek medical help can have a significant impact on the disease’s outcome. Ruby Hall Clinic is a well-known medical facility that offers comprehensive care for dengue fever and other medical conditions.

Early Signs and Symptoms of Dengue Fever

  1. High fever (typically lasting 2-7 days)
  2. Severe headache, often behind the eyes
  3. Joint and muscle pain
  4. Rash (characterized by small red or purple spots)
  5. Mild bleeding from the nose or gums
  6. Fatigue and weakness

Dengue fever can progress to Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) or Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) in severe cases, which can cause severe abdominal pain, persistent vomiting, bleeding gums, difficulty breathing, and organ impairment. If you experience any of these symptoms, you should seek medical attention right away.

The Importance of Early Detection and Treatment

Early detection allows for proper management and reduces the risk of complications. While there is no specific antiviral treatment for dengue, supportive care can help relieve symptoms and prevent complications. Doctors may recommend rest, hydration, and pain relievers to treat fever and pain (excluding aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). In severe cases, hospitalisation and close monitoring are required to provide intravenous fluids, blood transfusions, or other necessary interventions.

When and Where to Seek Medical Help – Ruby Hall Clinic Is Always There

If you have symptoms of dengue fever, it is critical that you seek medical attention right away. Ruby Hall Clinic, a well-known healthcare facility, provides a variety of services for dengue fever diagnosis and management. Among these services are:

  • Diagnostic Tests: Ruby Hall Clinic offers pathological laboratory testing to confirm dengue infection, including blood tests to detect dengue virus or antibodies.
  • Medical Consultation: Ruby Hall Clinic’s experienced physicians can assess your symptoms, perform a physical examination, and provide appropriate medical advice and treatment options.
  • Inpatient Care: Ruby Hall Clinic provides specialized  care units with skilled healthcare professionals who can provide comprehensive medical care and monitoring in severe cases requiring hospitalization.
  • Supportive Care: Ruby Hall Clinic’s healthcare team focuses on providing supportive care, such as fluid management, pain relief, and close monitoring of vital signs.

Remember, if you have symptoms of dengue fever, you should see a doctor right away for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. With its comprehensive services, Ruby Hall Clinic can provide the necessary medical care and support during dengue fever.

Dengue Vaccination At Ruby Hall Clinic

Dengue vaccination is extremely effective in preventing the onset and severity of dengue fever. While dengue vaccine availability and specific recommendations vary by country, understanding the current state of dengue vaccination, including who should receive it and its effectiveness, is critical. Ruby Hall Clinic in Pune is a reputable healthcare facility that offers dengue vaccination services and information.

While dengue vaccination availability varies, you can inquire about dengue vaccine availability and any specific recommendations or requirements for vaccination by contacting Ruby Hall Clinic directly or visiting the website.

Services provided at Ruby Hall Clinic include:

  • Vaccination Consultation: Experienced healthcare professionals can determine your eligibility for dengue vaccination and make personalised recommendations based on your unique situation.
  • Vaccine Administration: Ruby Hall Clinic provides vaccination services, including dengue vaccine administration. Trained healthcare professionals ensure that the vaccine is administered safely and correctly.
  • Vaccine Monitoring and Follow-up: Ruby Hall Clinic may provide post-vaccination monitoring and advice on any potential side effects or concerns following vaccination.

To obtain accurate and up-to-date information about dengue vaccination availability, eligibility criteria, and recommended guidelines, it is critical to consult with healthcare professionals at Ruby Hall Clinic or any healthcare provider in Pune.


To summarise, dengue fever is a major global health issue, but it is preventable and manageable. We can stop the spread of this mosquito-borne disease by recognising the symptoms, seeking early medical attention, and implementing effective preventive measures.

Eradicating mosquito breeding sites, implementing personal safety measures, community mobilisation, and implementing effective vector control measures are all critical steps in preventing dengue transmission, and endemic vaccination may help even more. To summarise, dengue fever is a major global health issue, but it is preventable and manageable. We can stop the spread of this mosquito-borne disease by recognising the symptoms, seeking early medical attention, and implementing effective preventive measures.

In addition, renowned health institutions such as Ruby Hall Hospital in Hinjawadi, Pune provide essential services such as diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination to assist you in your fight against dengue. We can reduce the global burden of dengue by combining these preventive measures with strong surveillance, timely reporting, and healthcare infrastructure.

Dr. Sudheer Rai
Dr. Amit Girme

Dr. Amit Girme is a well-known doctor based in Pune specializing in General Surgery. He has over 13 years of experience practicing medicine and specializes in skin grafting, hydrocele appendix, Abscess Drainage, General and laparoscopic surgeries, Hernia Repair, and endoscopy abdominal surgeries.

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